Veritas MS-3 Survival Guide: Tips and Templates for … MS3_Survival_Guid… · Veritas MS-3 Survival Guide: Tips and Templates for - [PDF Document] (2024)


Veritas MS-3 Survival


Tips and Templates for

the Student Doctor

Meredith Greer and Sara Hartnett (2014)

Revised by: Kirsten Dahl (2015)

Revised by: Robert Vasko (2016)

DISCLAIMER: A guide for students created by students


How to use this Survival Guide:

Don’t try and read this all at once! The weekend before you start a new rotation, read

the section that pertains to the rotation

Use the templates. They’re in here because they’ve been very helpful for previous

MS3’s (who were successful and graduated!)

Order of rotations in this document (to help you find them a little better):

Medicine……………………………………………………………………. 3

o General ……………………………………………………………… 3

o Transplant……………………………………………………………. 6

o HIV Team……………………………………………………………. 6

Neurology…………………………………………………………………… 19

Surgery……………………………………………………………………… 32

OBGYN…………………………………………………………………….. 37

Psych………………………………………………………………………... 42

Peds…………………………………………………………………………. 56

Family Medicine……………………………………………………………. 60

EM…………………………………………………………………………... 62

RAHC……………………………………………………………………….. 63

Information on schedules……………………………………………………. 64


MEDICINE: How to Shine…(Important info for every other rotation too!)

Values and Calculations: Download a medical calculator app to your smartphone (MedCalc is popular)

o VS (Temp, HR, BP, RR, O2) –Give 24 hour ranges from 7am yesterday to 7am that day. 1. Temp: THERE ARE ONLY 3 OPTIONS!!!

Afebrile, or Medicine fever (>100.4), or Surgery fever (>101.4) 2. HR & BP: Stable or changing from yesterday? If tachycardic is it associated with

fever/pain/exertion/etc? 3. RR: Not as important, unless your O2 is low and/or it’s hypo/hyper and leading to acid/base d/o

4. O2: Given as a percentage. Give mode of oxygen delivery (Room air? Nasal cannula - How many

liters? Assisted--mask, BIPAP, CPAP, vent…settings?) An O2 >92% is fine…less than this, note it! Consider oxygen.

RA is an FiO2 of 21%

For each L, you’re adding about 3% O2 (so if I’m on 3L O2, my FiO2 is ~30%) o UOP: Amount of urine in mL/pts wt in kg/”whatever time” (mL/kg/hr)

1. So if pt put out 1500 mL of urine in 24 hours and he weighs 70 kg you would say “UOP is 0.9


2. UOP should be no less than 0.5 mL/kg/hr in adults

o WBC: If your pt has a low white count and/or is at risk for neutropenia, calculate the absolute neutrophil count

1. ANC = (%segs + %bands) x WBC 2. What’s that you say, your pt has neutropenic fever?!?

Plan: Cefepime x48 hrs…still fevering? Vanc x5 days…still fevering? Add antifungals!

3. If the white count is high, why? Look at the differential to see what predominates (neutrophils,

lymphocytes, etc)…don’t forget, steroidsincrease in white count! So don’t get too excited if you just started your pt on Prednisone yesterday and all of a sudden their WBC jumps.

o Hgb/Hct should be ~1:3 and >7/21 (8/24 for ObGyn and 10/30 in severe conditions) 1. Transfusing 1U of pRBCsincrease of 1 in Hgb and 3 in Hct…KNOW THIS! 2. This means that if a pts H/H drops by 1/3, they have likely lost 1U of blood

o Plts: Goal of >50 (clot able to form), consider transfusing @ <20

o Na: If low, think about volume overload (the 3 “osis-es”); if high, they’re dry! o K: Know how to replace K if low and what steps to take if high!

1. HYPO-K: 10mEq IVincrease in ~0.1 K. Give to goal (20-40 mEq at a time), don’t go overboard YOU MUST HAVE ADEQUATE Mg TO REPLETE K!!! If you don’t have a Mg level, suggest getting one for this reason, you will look smart

2. HYPER-K: Treatment = “C BIG K, Die” C=Calcium gluconate (for stabilizing myocytes in heart, not actually treating K) B=Bicarb


K=Kayexalate (poop out the excess K) “Die”=Dialysis (last ditch effort if others aren’t working!)

o Cl/Bicarb: See “acid/base” below… o BUN/Cr: Calc the GFR! If your pt is on dialysis, Cr is irrelevant – don’t get excited about it.

1. Prerenal AKI: BUN/Cr>20, FeNa<1% 2. Intrinsic AKI: BUN/Cr<15, FeNa>2% 3. Postrenal AKI: BUN/CR>15, FeNa>4%


1. ALWAYS correct Ca for Alb: [0.8 x (4-Alb)] + Ca= your corrected Ca level

o Glucose: Pt diabetic? Or been hypo or hyperglycemic? 1. Give the last 3 glucoses!!!


Scores: The following are also on MedCalc…

o STEMI and NSTEMI: TIMI score

o Pneumonia: CURB-65

o Pleural effusion: Light’s criteria

o Pulmonary embolism: Wells Score (there is also a Wells for DVT)

o Pancreatitis: Ranson’s criteria and Apache II score

o Liver disease: MELD score

o Risk of stroke w/in 1st

2 days of having TIA: ABCD2 score

o Risk of stroke in pts w/ A-Fib: CHADS2 score o Stroke: NIH Stroke Scale

Acid/Base status: o pH & Bicarb/CO2…first, figure out what you are dealing with…also, anion gap?

1. AG=Na - (Cl + Bicarb)…about 8-12 is normal 2. If you have a metabolic acidosis WITH an anion gap…think MUDPILES! 3. Expected CO2 during a metabolic acidosis? WINTER’S FORMULA!

Indications for emergent dialysis!!! AEI(SLIME)OU! o A: acidosis (metabolic…so again go back to MUDPILES, etc.) o E: electrolytes (mainly K) o I: intoxication

1. SLIME (salicylates, Li+, isopropanol, Mg-containing laxatives, ethylene glycol) o O: the “osis-es”…volume overload (from CHF-“cardiosis”, cirrhosis, nephrosis) o U: uremia (pericarditis, encephalopathy, and/or GI bleed may be present)

Last thing…TOP CAUSES…YOU WILL BE PIMPED ON THESE THINGS!!! o Pancreatitis: MCC can be attending dependent…

1. Gallstones (MC in women) 2. Alcohol (MC in men) 3. TGs (>800-1000)

o Small bowel obstruction (SBO): 1. Adhesions (ask about surgical history, look for abdominal scars!) 2. Hernia (drop the pants!) 3. Cancer (family history, look carefully for signs and symptoms)

o Post-op fever: KNOW THE TIMING! Usually happens in the order below… 1. Atelectasis (MCC day 1), pneumonia (hospital acquired or aspiration), UTI (how long has this

foley been in?), PE/DVT, wound infection, line infection (usually >7days post-op) o Critical limb ischemia…THIS IS AN EMERGENCY!

1. “6 Ps”: Pain, Pallor, Poikylothermia, Paresthesias, Paralysis, Pulselessness

Good books for studying: o Step Up 2 Medicine (amazing for shelf) o Pocket Medicine (amazing for pimps)

o Master the Boards (useful for Step 2)

o UWorld Q-bank o Watch Emma Ramahi’s reviews!!!


Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.







0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

Uworld MedicineSection

Emma Holliday RamahiVideo

Step Up 2 Medicine


Case Files

Master the boards 2

Internal Medicine



Primary team for patients that are awaiting a transplant or are at least a few months post-transplant

See liver, kidney, and lung transplant patients; most commonly cirrhosis, renal failure, and interstitial

lung disease


o Morning is the same as the other inpatient teams

o Multidisciplinary meeting at 1pm: resident presents patients to surgeons, pharmacists, consulting

services, social workers, etc

You need to be there for the meeting, just sit along the wall

o No call! Accept new patients every day

For Pre-Transplant patients

o Cirrhosis: calculate and report MELD score when they come in

Hepatic Encephalopathy: check ammonia levels and see if patient is post-TIPS

When obtaining history, ask how much lactulose they have been taking

On physical exam, check for asterixis (“please hold your arms straight out in front of you

with your hands up like you are stopping traffic”)

o Renal Failure: report GFR and baseline Cr

o Lung: look up most recent PFTs

For Post-Transplant patients

o Report date of transplant and where it was done if not at UH

o Usually on Tacrolimus (Prograf) and/or Mycophenolate (Cellcept)

Report Prograf levels in the AM

These are immunosuppressive drugs so keep that in mind when considering


TEAM-6 (HIV): How to Shine

For each pt’s one liner make sure to include: when the HIV was diagnosed, the most recent CD4 value and % as

well as the most recent viral load and when those values were taken.

o Ex: “Pt is a 66 yo male diagnosed in March of this year with a CD4 of 200 and 14% on this admission

and a viral load of 40,000 back in March.”

Make sure you also present the drug regimen for each patient. Know the brand name AND the generics…and

know how each drug works!

o Ex: “Pt is currently taking Atripla which is Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir.”

DRUG S/E! Look this up BEFORE speaking with your pt so you can ask appropriate questions.

Do NOT be afraid to ask a complete sexual history, drug use history, and psych history!!!

Do the FULL EXAM! This includes the genital exam, very important!

Know your opportunistic infections and at which CD4 levels they pop up!

This page: has the “Adult and Adolescent ARV Guidelines” which is all you

ever need to know about antiretroviral therapy, and the “Adult and Adolescent OI Prevention and Treatment

Guidelines”, which has everything you need to know about the various OIs.






HPI: Pt is a 52 yo AA M w/ HIV (CD4 833/39% on 5/2013 and VL<20 on 4/2012) on Atripla (Efavirenz,

Emtricitabine and Tenofovir) which he claims to take daily except for the past 3 days. PMHx includes

chronic HCV, alcohol dependence, and elicit drug use. Pt presented to the ED w/ cc of hallucination after

snorting a total of ~5g (~$500) of methamphetamines beginning ~7 days ago while pt was visiting high

school friends in Corpus Christi. Per pt’s partner, pt had not eaten/showered/slept x4 days and continued

to have visual hallucinations through Monday to the point where he locked himself in a room for 4 hours.

Pt’s partner attempted to calm him down/get him to sleep by giving him 5mg Ambien. Unfortunately pt

was unable to fall asleep and continued to hallucinate. Pt claims that ~6 men with guns showed up to his

family’s home to kill him Monday evening, however his partner reveals that the pt was hallucinating this

event, and states that no one else present at the time witnessed the men with guns. Partner does admit that

men may have actually been coming after the pt to collect money (for the methamphetamines) although

he does not know if these men are in Corpus Christi or San Antonio. Of note, pt drinks an average of 12

beers per day and has not had any alcohol since returning to San Antonio on Sunday (05/12/13) and

possibly for some days before this as well. This is unclear. Partner reports that pt was shaking over the

weekend, especially his feet, but pt experienced no seizures. Of note, pt began having psychiatric issues

~1.5 years ago, including hospitalization for SI in 2012 and has been having episodes of incontinence

over the past 1 month. On ROS pt reports acute weight loss of 40-50 lbs although partner says that this

has occurred over time, pt also reports coughx6 yrs which he feels has worsened recently. Pt denies

fever/sweats, n/v/d/c, CP, SOB, and swelling. *Pt previously incarcerated for burglary (1992-2007).

PMH: HIV(CD4 833/39% on 5/2013 and VL<20 on 4/2012)

Chronic Hepatitis C (HCV serotype 1, VL: 7.6 million)

Alcohol dependence

PSH: Appy, 1986

4 arthroscopic procedures, unknown dates

FH: Mom-HTN, DM, depression



SH: Lives alone in an apt in SA, has 1 current partner (male), engages in sexual activity w/ both males and

females, >300 lifetime partners, previously incarcerated (1992-2007)

T-1ppd x30 yrs

E-12 beers daily

D-hx of IV heroin use (most recent 6 months ago), more recent methamphetamine use (states this is rare)

MEDS (outpt): Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir)


PHYSICAL EXAM: VS: T=Afebrile, P=60, R=18, BP=114/69, O2 100% on RA

-GENERAL: A&Ox3(name, location, event, disoriented to time/day/month/year/season)

-HEENT: NCAT, scleral icterus, maxillary adentialis, denture implant seen in L maxillary ridge,

ulceration present in same area, no other ulcers identified in oropharynx

-CV: rrr no m/r/g auscultated by me (extra heart sound (S3) heard by attending)

-RESP: mild rhonchi BL lower lung fields, no wheezes/crackles

-ABD: +BS, soft, NT/ND, diffuse 1+edema, somewhat loose skin over abd, mild hepatomegaly, no

splenomegaly, appy scar LLQ

-EXT: WWP, no c/c/e

-SKIN: small 1mmx1mm white dots on abd, back, and shoulders; tattoos on chest and abdomen (Tupac,

Bob Marley?, marijuana leaf, undistinguishable writing), tattoos BL UE and covering entire back as


-GU: circumcised w/ no penile lesions, no drainage expressed, no inguinal lymphadenopathy present

MEDS (inpt): Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir)

Olanzepine (Zyprexa) 10mg QHS

Acetominophen (Tylenol) 650mg q4h PRN pain

Morphine Sulfate 2mg IV push q4h PRN pain

Enoxaparin (Lovenox) 40mg SC daily

LABS: -CBC: 6.1>12.4/35.5<154 (admit CBC: 7.9>14/40<84)

-CHEM: 138/4.9/106/27/26/.8<97 (admit Cr: 1.7)

-Ca/Mg/PO4: 9.2/1.9/2.8

-Alb: 3.1, Pro: 8.4

-AST/ALT: 502/222, AlkPhos: 106, TBili: 2.4

-UA: pH6, 1+pro, 1+ketones, 2+bili, 1+blood, RBC1-5, 1+leukocytes, WBC1-5, +nitrites, rare bacteria,

1-5 hyaline casts

-Repeat UA: pH6, no pro, no glu, no blood, RBC2, trace ketones, 1+bili, >8 urobili, 1+leukocytes,

WBC7, 4 bacteria, 3 hyaline casts

-Hep B Core IgM: NR; Hep B Surface Ag: NR; Heb B Surface Ab: 33

-Hep A Ab: NR

-Hep C VL (01/2009): 7.67 million, Hep C genotype 1

-CSF: glucose 66, protein 44

-CSF Cell Ct 1: clear, colorless, 230 RBC, total nucleated cell ct<5

-CSF Cell Ct 2: clear, colorless, 0 RBC, total nucleated cell ct<5

-CSF Gram stain and Cx: No WBCs, No bacteria

-CSF India ink and FCx: negative

-BCx: 1/2 Gram+ cocci in chains, C/ID to follow

IMAGING: 05/15/13 CT HEAD: No acute intracranial abnormalities.

05/15/13 KUB: 1. Echogenic liver, suggestive of hepatic steatosis versus fibrosis. 2. Cholelithiasis

without other sonographic findings of cholecystitis.




ASSESSMENT & PLAN: 52 yo AA M w/ HCV coinfection w/ HIV (CD4 833/39% on 5/2013 and

VL<20 on 4/2012) on Atripla who has hallucinations x7 days and found to have elevated transaminases

this admission.

Hallucinations: Most likely 2/2 to methamphetamine use complicated by possible alcohol withdrawal and

Ambien intoxication. As this pt has HIV, we must also consider TB, Syphilis, HSV, Toxo, Crypto, Histo,

and Coccidioidies.




--Viral swab of oral lesion

--LP: Get cell count, AFB Cx and stain, VDRL, RPR, Fungal Cx, Cryptococcal ag, Histo ag,

Toxoplasmosis ag, Toxo/HSV PCR, Coccidioidies serologies

--Psych consult


HIV/AIDS: CD4 833/39% on 5/2013 and VL<20 on 4/2012

--Continue Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir)

--VL pending

Possible bacteremia: BCx shows Gram+ cocci in chains, C/ID to follow

--Empiric tx w/ Vanc x1 day

--F/u on Cx results

Elevated transaminases: HCV+, AST/ALT 502/222 w/ TBili 2.4, DBili 0.9, Indirect 1.5; H/H on admit

14/40, now 12.4/35.5

--Abd US: Steatosis vs Fibrosis

--Hep A, Hep B panel normal

--Peripheral smear for possible hemolysis

Substance abuse: Admits to alcohol use daily and intermittent elicit drug use

--Counseling on outpt basis (psych at FAACTS clinic)



MEDICINE: PROGRESS NOTE (SOAP FORMAT) WRITE-UP EXAMPLE S: No acute events o/n. This AM pt sedated, responds to voice but not to commands, unable to open eyes. O: VS: T=Afebrile, P=80s, R=15-20, BP=137/86-153/107, O2 100% on 3L NC

DRIPS: none UOP: 3,200 mL=1.2mL/kg/hr

PHYSICAL EXAM: -GENERAL: sedated, sitting up in bed, unable to open eyes but squeezes eyes shut in response to my attempt

to open them/shine light in them -HEENT: NCAT, non-icteric sclera, 1mm pupils BL, UTA reactivity, conjugate gaze

-CV: rrr no m/r/g auscultated (difficult to hear as pt has loud tracheal breath sounds)

-RESP: diffuse rhonchi BL, loud tracheal breath sounds -ABD: +BS, soft, obese, 1+ pitting edema throughout lower abdomen

-EXT: WWP; Trace pitting edema of R hand, 2+ pitting edema of R forearm; No edema of L hand, 1+ pitting

edema of L forearm; 3-4+ edema on dependent aspect of BL thighs, 3+BLLE pitting edema; Mild skin

mottling on BL feet (more near great toe); Bx site C/D/I, wound packed, bandage in place, no

warmth/erythema/edema, no serosanginous drainage; Inguinal lymphadenopathy non-visible at this point MEDS: Acetominophen (Tylenol) 650mg q6h PRN fever/pain - HOLD Allopurinol 300mg daily ASA 81mg daily Atorvastatin 10mg QHS - HOLD Azithromycin 1,200mg weekly Filgrastim (Neupogen) 480mcg daily Folate 1mg daily Furosemide (Lasix) 40mg IV BID Heparin 5,000U q8h SC Metoprolol 50mg BID Micafungin 100mg daily Olanzepine 10mg BID Ondansetron 4mg q4h PRN n/v Ranitidine 150mg BID Thiamine 100mg daily Valacyclovir 500mg BID Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) + Raltegravir - HOLD Vancomycin 1g IVPB BID - HOLD CHEMO: Intrathecal Methotrexate LABS:

-CBC: 0.6>7.7/24.4<101 0.3>7.2/22.2<59 (ANC: 204) - -CHEM: 149/4.1/118/20/46/1.6<112 149/3.9/117/21/46/1.7<193 -Ca/Mg/PO4: 7.4(8.9)/1.8/2.4 7.3(9)/1.7/2.3 -Alb: 2.1 1.9, Pro: 5.7 5.5 -AST/ALT: 2049/818 1673/816, AlkPhos: 243 323, TBili: 3.4, DBili: 2.5 -LDH: 1371 1111, Uric acid: 4.8 (stable), Lactic acid (5/19/13): 3.2 - -Vanc level: 21.0 -Ammonia<25, CK 156 (WNL), urine myoglobin: negative -TSH: 1.227 -BNP>5,000



-L ingunal bx site wound cx: Coag-neg Staph. And Enterococcus

-BCx: NGTD -Cath tip (PICC): NGTD -CSF Cx: negative at 72 hours

-AFB: negative

-Fungal Cx: negative

-Sputum Cx: many leuc -Cath tip (Quinton): >15colonies of CNS

IMAGING: 5/22/13 CXR: 1. Worsening mixed interstitial/air space opacity, differential

diagnosis includes pulmonary edema and/or multifocal pneumonia. 2. Left retrocardiac opacity (atelectasis and/or pneumonia),

unchanged. 3. Life-support devices satisfactorily positioned, without

visualization of the distal end of the orogastric tube. 5/21/13 RUQ

SONO: FINDINGS: Liver is normal in size and demonstrates increased echogenicity. A 2.0 x 1.7 cm echogenic lesion is again noted in the

right hepatic lobe. Gallbladder is normal and its wall measures 4 mm in thickness. No gallstones are seen. Negative sonographic Murphy's

sign was reported by the ultrasound technologist. The common bile duct measures 2 mm and there is no biliary dilatation.

Pancreas is partially seen and is normal. The right kidney is normal in echogenicity and measures 9.6 cm in length. No stone or hydronephrosis is seen.

Visualized portions of aorta and inferior vena cava are normal. IMPRESSION: 1. Echogenic liver consistent with hepatic steatosis or fibrosis.

2. Indeterminate 2-cm echogenic lesion in the right hepatic lobe. 5/20/13 ECHO: There is moderate RAE,LAE and RVE,also mild LVE. LV shows normal wall thickness and severe regional wall motion

abnormalities as depicted below. Global function is moderately to severely depressed (EF 35% by biplane method but by

visual inspection is 25-30%). There is severe diastolic dysfunction. Heart valves are structurally normal with mild MR and

TR. Estimated PASP is 50mmHg c/w moderate pulmonary hypertension. CVP is elevated at 15mmHg. No previous study

available for comparison. 5/20/13 KUB: Poor visualization of the nasogastric tube; suspect that the tube's tip is located within the distal esophagus or

gastroesophageal junction. Tube advancement or replacement is recommended to obtain optimal positioning. This

finding and recommendation were discussed with Kanapa Kornsawad, M.D. on May 20, 2013 at 11:43 a.m.. 5/14/13 MRI BRAIN: Two small nonenhancing foci of T2/FLAIR hyperintensity within the left middle and left inferior frontal gyri. This

finding is nonspecific but could relate to a prior insult/remote infarction. 5/14/13 MRI LIVER: Please note this study was degraded to motion artifact. A 2.5-cm lesion within hepatic segment 7 with possible rim

enhancement concerning for metastasis. Recommend short interval follow-up.


5/14/13 MRI LUMBAR SPINE: 1. No evidence of metastatic disease of the lumbar spine.

2. Multilevel lumbar spondylosis, as described above. 5/12/13 CT HEAD: No acute intracranial abnormality. 5/2/13 MUGA: septal hypokinesis with EF 41%

4/29/13 CT Chest: 1. No evidence of intrathoracic metastatic disease. 2. Coronary artery calcifications.

3. Left upper lobe, lingula and bibasilar subsegmental atelectasis.

4. Partially visualized soft tissue density encasing the celiac trunk, described in detail in on prior CT of the abdomen and


4/24/13 CT ABD/PELVIS: Extensive infiltrative soft tissue density mass throughout the abdomen (primarily

retroperitoneum) and extending into the pelvis, presacral region and left inguinal region in addition to a right hepatic mass.

Differential considerations include retroperitoneal sarcoma, lymphoma and metastatic disease. The left inguinal

lymphadenopathy would be amenable to ultrasound-guided biopsy. ASSESSMENT & PLAN: 60 yo M w/ HIV/AIDS (dx Mar 2013, CD4: 49/5%, VL: 98), CAD s/p CABG, HTN, HLP and

DM who was recently found to have CD10+ Burkitt’s lymphoma and w/ “hyper-Warburgism” on this admission as well as

Tumor Lysis Syndrome w/ initiation of chemotherapy. AMS/ Agitation: Pt may have AMS 2/2 electrolyte abnormalities and/or may be experiencing ICU delirium. Ammonia, TSH,

RPR, B12, LP, CT, and MRI all unremarkable. Folate 3.2 on 05/03/13 but pt has been supplemented w/ folate since admission.

EEG showed diffuse slowing 2/2 moderate-severe encephalopathy of non-specific origin. --Reduce Olanzapine to just 10mg QHS, plan to taper off --

Continue aspiration precautions

--HSV, JC pending Elevated LFTs: Appear to be downtrending, AST/ALT: 2049/818 1673/816, AlkPhos: 243 323, TBili: 3.4, DBili: 2.5 Most

likely causes are toxic agents/medications (pt on allopurinol, HAART, IT MTX, and atorvastatin), and hypotension/CHF

related cause such as ischemia (i.e. shock liver) or congestion. --Ammonia<25, CK WNL, urine myoglobin negative --

CMV, EBV, HSV pending

--Switch Fluconazole to Micafungin 100mg daily --

HOLD HAART --HOLD Atorvastatin

--Continue to follow daily LFTs Hypernatremia: Na still at 149, likely 2/2 third spacing w/ water deficit between 2-4L (3.5 L per renal). --

Give D5W 200cc/hr x24 hrs (per renal rec)

--DC Saline (per renal rec) --

Na checks q6h

--Continue Lasix 40mg BID

--Follow BMPs Candidemia: Pt found to have yeast in SCx, UCx, and BCx of PICC line. C/ID showed Candida albicans --

Switch Fluconazole to Micafungin 100mg daily Line infection: Quinton cath w/ CNS -

-HOLD Vanc as level is 21.0

--Get Vanc level at 4 AM and restart as needed

--Leave HD cath i in case of emergent HD as pt will begin chemo again soon (per renal rec)


L inguinal SSTI: Cx showed CNS and amp/vanc susceptible enterococcus

--Continue wound care

--See above for Vanc changes HIV/AIDS: Dx Mar 2013; CD4 of 49/5% on 04/01/13, VL 98 on 5/6/13; HLAB5701 negative

--HOLD Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) + Raltegravir --HOLD PCP and Toxo PPX w/ Bactrim 1TAB daily

--Continue MAC PPX w/ Azithromycin 1,200mg weekly

--New VL pending Burkitt’s lymphoma: CD10+ lymphoma likely 2/2 HIV. Pt recently completed a round of EPOCH and is receiving IT MTX.

BM bx report states that, “the location of the small lymphoid aggregate is worrisome; however, involvement by lymphoma

cannot be established. A repeat bone marrow may be useful if clinically indicated.” --Continue Allopurinol 300mg daily for TLS ppx

--TLS labs BID

--Keep nephrology in the loop as pt may need emergent CRRT (if TLS)

--IT MTX today (heme-onc) CAD s/p CABG, HTN, HLP, GERD, Chronic anemia, and Ppx:

--MICU continues to manage for now --Diastolic HTN 2/2 increased catecholamines on alpha-receptors as pt is on beta-blocker? Dispo: Full-code -Suggest discussing code status w/ family at their next visit


HPI: Patient is a _____ year-old M/F with a history of ________________________________________ Presents with: O/N events:

Vitals: Tc_____ Tm_____ HR_____ BP_____/_____ R_____ O2 _____on_____ I/O _____/_____


MCV _____

Ca _____ Mg _____ PO4 _____


A/P: Patient is a _____ year-old who presents with _______________________________

1) 4)

• ● • ● • ●

2) 5) • ● • ● • ●

3) 6)

• ● • ● • ●


MEDICINE: PROGRESS NOTE PRESENTATION EXAMPLE First give a brief reminder of who the person is: “Ok, so this is Mr. H, our 37 year old male with nephrotic

syndrome” Then, subjective: Always include the first line. Report any patient complaints or new symptoms, adding pertinent

positives or negatives to the complaint, then add information about results from changes in management done the day

before, or changes in symptoms from the day before. “No acute events overnight. This morning, the patient is complaining of increased swelling in his L arm after his IV

was replaced. He denies any pain or redness at the area. He denies any fevers or chills overnight. He is also

complaining of some redness in his vision that is new and a period of about 5 minutes where is vision went

completely black but then returned to normal. He denies the experience of “a curtain being pulled down” or any pain

associated with the event. He reports his cough has improved from yesterday with the Tylenol with codeine. He says

he is urinating well and no longer feels he has to strain. Overall, he feels better and that his total body swelling has

decreased.” Next, Objective: Start with vitals, then physical exam, then labs, then imaging/other tests. “Patient was afebrile overnight, heart rate ranged from 80-96, blood pressure remains elevated, ranging from

145/88 to 174/91, and he is satting well on room air. Total fluid intake was 1.5L, total output was 4L with a net

out of 2.5L. ” Physical exam should be brief, targeting only key areas, and focusing on changes. “On physical exam, patient remains edematous, however, level of edema is now 3+ just above the knees, sacral

edema is not appreciated, and periorbital edema has resolved. The left arm does appear to be more swollen than the

right, from the elbow distally to the fingertips. Peripheral IV is in place in the left antecubital fossa, dated yesterday.

The site is non-erythematous, non-tender, and there is no increased edema at the IV site compared to the rest of the

arm. Lungs sound more clear than yesterday, still with some appreciable crackles in the lung bases bilaterally.” Labs, again should be brief and focus on abnormal numbers, changes, and trends. “In his labs for today, his potassium dropped slightly to 3.1, BUN and Cr remain elevated, but are stable. Hemoglobin

and hematocrit are decreased, but stable. Last three glucoses were 200, 150, and 130. 24 hour urine protein came back

as 10g. SPEP and UPEP have been ordered but are pending.” For the images/other tests section, read the impression and/or final report. If none are given, you can give your

opinion if you are relatively confident. “Bilateral hip Xrays were ordered yesterday because the nephrologist noted the patient’s gait appeared abnormal

and he was concerned for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The final read hasn’t come back yet, but on my

review this morning, I didn’t appreciate any abnormality. Patient also had an echo done yesterday which showed an

estimated ejection fraction of 55-60%, no wall motion abnormalities, and mild mitral regurgitation. ” Finally, assessment and plan. This is where you will improve the most your third year, so don’t worry about getting it

right your first day or even your first semester. You will also be interrupted a lot during this section with new

information the resident got during rounds you didn’t know about, or just the team thinking out loud. Come up with a

couple things at least to show you are thinking about the information you have gathered.


The assessment is your one liner. “So this is Mr. H, our 37 year old with a past medical history of uncontrolled diabetes, type 2 and hypertension

who presents with nephrotic syndrome and vision loss. Your plan should be problem based on medicine. Start

with new problems and the most acute issues. Ask your residents for help on the plans before rounds. They will give

you advice, but sometimes forget to offer it first because they are busy. “Problem number one would be his new vision complaints. Patient has already been seen by optho on Monday and

they performed photocoagulation on his R eye, which is his only good eye, and they set him up for a follow up

appointment next month as an outpatient. His symptoms are probably related to his diabetic retinopathy but may be

a complication of the photocoagulation. We should probably call optho again and have them re-examine his eye.

We will also continue the regimen of drops they recommended for pain and pressure control. We will consult OT to

help him with ADLs with his decreased vision. His next problem is the new swelling in his L arm after the IV was replaced. Based on physical exam, it doesn’t

appear to be infected, so we aren’t worried about cellulitis or thrombophlebitit*. We should have the nurse check the

IV today and replace it in is R arm. We will put a new nurses order to no longer place IVs in his L arm as he might

be considered for dialysis for long term management and since he is R handed, we will need to protect his

nondominant arm. Next would be his nephrotic syndrome. The patient is improving symptomatically with the diuresis and continues to

have large net urine output. Renal is on board and recommends to continue diuresing him with Lasix 80mg iv bid as

he still has a large amount of edema. We will also continue Lisinopril 20mg bid and Trental 400mg daily to prevent

additional protein loss through the urine. Patient noted he felt like he was being given a lot of different juices and teas

with his meals, so we will place a fluid restriction of 1.5 L in his diet order. His next problem is his hypertension. His blood pressure remains elevated since admission. Due to his Utox being

positive for cocaine, we avoided Beta-blockers and started a calcium channel blocker. Renal recommended increasing

nifedipine to 90mg daily. Next would be his chronic kidney disease. His BUN and Cr remain stable since admission, and he is still voiding

well. Again, renal is on board and they recommend obtaining venous mapping and consulting vascular surgery for

placement of an AV fistula as patient will most likely need dialysis for long term management. Next is his diabetes. He is currently only on insulin sliding scale, requiring only 5 units in the past 24 hours. His

sugars have been well controlled since admission, so we can continue with that with plans for continuing his

outpatient regimen on discharge as his hemoglobin A1c on admission was 6.8. He also has a microcytic anemic with an H&H of 8.2 and 24.6 and an MCV of 82. This has been stable since admission.

Patient remains asymptomatic with no complaints of fatigue, dizziness, or lightheadedness. The anemia is most likely

secondary to his chronic kidney disease, however, we will order iron studies to make sure it is not a reversible cause.” At the end of your presentation include the following: prophylaxis measures, code status, and disposition.

Prophylaxis includes for DVT (lovenox, SCDs, heparin, early ambulation), aspiration (dysphagia ground diet,

protonix), etc. Disposition is where their care will be continued and where they will go when they are discharged. “He is on heparin 5000 units twice daily for DVT prophylaxis due to his poor kidney function. We are avoiding SCDs

due to his edema. He is full code and his disposition will be continued diuresis in house with discharge to home.”


NEUROLOGY: How to Shine

o This exam is long and complicated but each part is very important. You can't just say "4/5 strength on the left" really need to know each muscle you are testing because patterns lead to diagnoses and if you can find a pattern (even if you can't recognize what it means) your resident/attending will be impressed :)

o Be sure to ask the 4 orientation questions 1st (even if it seems silly, you cannot report A&Ox4 if you

don’t!): 1. Tell me your name 2. Where are we? 3. What is today? Date? Month? Year? Season? 4. Do

you remember why you came to the hospital?/Why are you here?

o Next I usually ask a few more questions…What is this object? What color is it? Who is the president? Do you remember your first job? Or…where did you go to high school?

o Make sure you are paying attention to the patient’s speech this entire time! o REVIEW YOUR CRANIAL NERVES!!! Please know each never and what it does BEFORE you start!

CN1: olfactory CN7: facial

CN2: optic CN8: vestibulo-cochlear

CN3: oculomotor CN9: glossopharyngeal

CN4: trochlear CN10: vagus

CN5: trigeminal CN11: spinal accessory

CN6: abducens CN12: hypoglossal

o Last but not least, please do not forget to do a good general physical exam on your patients. I'm all for

you recognizing that your patient has 1mm pupil in one eye and 2mm pupil in the other but what

about that giant butt abscess that you missed because you didn't undress the patient and flip them

over?!? 1. Never forget your basics! Every patient deserves a heart and lung exam.

Come prepared! ALWAYS have a stethoscope (that's for your resident/attending b/c they never have theirs), have like 5 pens in your pocket for the same reason, have a pen light, reflex hammer, large tuning fork, something to test sensation with (cotton swab, safety pin, etc), and try to bring an ophthalmoscope if you have one or know someone who does. Obviously don't go buy one for a 3 week rotation...but try to find one.

Know how to take a seizure history!!! Attached you will find a seizure history template.

Review anatomy and neuro-radiology! Make sure you know the Circle of Willis please! And the following…

o CT: a series of X-rays, used for bleed, stroke, mass, calcifications; bone=bright white 1. HypoDENSE infarction, edema (note: tumors may have surrounding edema) 2. Hyperdense calcifications, bleed 3. CT angio indicated when you need to look at vessels (anatomy, clots, leaks, etc.)

o MRI T1: CSF/water is dark, fat and white matter is white, grey matter is grey o MRI T2: CSF/water is bright, fat and white matter is darker (so grey matter is lighter than white here)

o MRI T2/FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery): uses a pulse sequence technique that nulls

fluids so CSF is dark, BUT white matter is still darker than grey matter …this is why you cannot use

the CSF alone to judge what type of MRI you’re seeing! AKA just knowing “WWII” is not that helpful

here. 1. Note: lesions on MRI are described as hypo or hyperINTENSE (not dense, like CTs)

Good books for studying:

o Pocket Medicine (read the neuro section before you start your rotation) o Step Up 2 Medicine o UWorld Q-bank o Blueprints


Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.







0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

Neurology SAE questions

Uworld Nervous System Section

Blue Prints


Case Files

Step Up 2 Medicine Neurology Section




HPI: ROS: Gen: no loss or gain of weight, no fatigue, no fevers, chills, night sweats Eyes: no recent changes in vision, no blurred vision or diplopia; wears corrective lenses

Ears: no recent changes in hearing, no tinnitus

Nose: no nosebleeds Mouth: no

bleeding gums, sore throat Allergies: no congestion Nek:no pain or stiffness Resp: no SOB, no cough CV: no palpitations, no chest pain GI: no changes in appetite, no dysphagia, no n/v, no abdominal pain, no diarrhea, no constipation, no BRBPR or melena

GU: no dysuria

Neuor: as per HPI

Skin: no rashes

MSK: no joint pain Heme: no easy bruising, no bleeding PMH: PSH: FH: SH: Lives with: Smoking: EtOH: Illicit drugs: ALLG: NKDA MEDS: PHYSICAL EXAM: VS: GEN: NAD, appears stated age, good personal hygiene HEENT: NC/AT, MMM, oropharynx clear CV: regular rhythm, no m/r/g, no peripheral edema RESP: breathing regular and unlabored, CTAB ABD: soft, NT/ND, +BS EXT: WWP, no c/c/e Mental Status: alert & oriented x4, repetition intact,speech is spontaneous and fluent comprehension and naming intact, object recognition normal, recent and remote memory intact Cranial Nerves: CN2: optic discs? OD/OS? visual fields full to confrontation? CN3,4,6: PERRLA, EOMI, no nystagmus, ptosis?


CN5: sensation V1, V2, V3 intact to light touch BL?

CN7: facial expressions intact bilaterally, no weakness of facial musculature observed? CN8: hearing grossly intact (Weber, Rhinne)? CN9,10: palate elevation symmetrical, no hoarseness of voice CN11: trapezius and sternocleidomastoid 5/5 strength BL CN12: no tongue deviation, no fasiculations Motor: Normal bulk and tone, no involuntary movements, no rigidity or spasticity, no fix, no pronator drift, able to stand

on heels and toes

Strength right left Deltoids 5/5 5/5 Biceps 5/5 5/5 Triceps 5/5 5/5 Wrist ext 5/5 5/5 Wrist flex 5/5 5/5 Finger abd 5/5 5/5 Finger flex 5/5 5/5 Hip flex 5/5 5/5 Knee ext 5/5 5/5 Knee flex 5/5 5/5 Dorsiflex 5/5 5/5 Plantarflex 5/5 5/5 Sensation: intact b/l to light touch, pinprick, proprioception, vibration and temp


BR Bic Tric Pat Ach Babinksi Clonus

Right 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ Negative absent

Left 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ Negative absent

Cerebellar: Intact finger-to-nose, heel-to-shin, and rapid alternating movements

Gait: Normal physiologic gait with no ataxia, normal tip toe walk, heel walk, and tandem walk PHYSICAL EXAM (SEDATED Patient): VS: Gen: NAD, intubated HEENT: NC/AT, MMM, oropharynx clear CV: regular rhythm, no m/r/g, no peripheral edema RESP: breathing regular and unlabored, CTAB ABD: soft, NT/ND, +BS EXT: WWP, no c/c/e MS: opens eyes spontaneously to voice or noxious stimulation, does not answer questions or follow commands CN: optic discs not visualized, PERRL, +oculocephalic maneuver, no nystagmus, +corneal reflex, face appears symmetric

Motor: Flaccid tone, normal bulk, no involuntary movements, no rigidity or spasticity Strength: moves all 4 extremities spontaneously

Sensation: withdraws to noxious stimuli Reflexes:


BR Bic Tric Pat Ach Babinksi Clonus

Right 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ Negative absent

Left 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ Negative absent

Cerebellar/Gait: unable to assess


TO TREND YOUR LABS! They are meaningless w/out the prior day’s values to compare to. CBC – WBC>Hgb/Hct<Plts Chem – Na/K/Cl/Bicarb/BUN/Cr<Glu Imaging:

A/P: 1. 2. etc… PPx: Dispo: FULL code? For seizure patients make sure to: Discussed with patient that by Texas law, pt is not to drive until he has gone 6

months free of any loss of awareness or seizure. Also advised patient not to be alone around open flame, standing water,

heights or heavy machinery. Also advised patient to refrain from any activity during which loss of consciousness could

lead to harm to himself or others. If your pt has ICH, suggest the following in your plan: -Admit to neuro stroke for obs

-Neurochecks q2h -If changes in neuro exam, then stat CT head and notify NSG

-Normothermic, Normotensive – prn labetalol for SBP >160

-Avoid anticoagulation and antiplatelets -Trauma surgery to clear c-collar. -

Bedside dysphagia screen If your pt has had a CVA, suggest the following in your plan: -Admit to Neuro stroke -Neurochecks q2h x4 h, then q4h

-Telemetry -Liberalize BP up to 220/110, prn labetalol -

MRI brain -MRA head and neck

-TTE with bubble study

-FLP, HgbA1c -Pending bedside dysphagia screen -

ASA 325 mg daily

-PT/OT/Speech/Rehab consult


NEURO H&P WRITE-UP EXAMPLE HPI: Pt is a 62 yo RHF w h/o seizures, HTN, angina, CVA, chronic migraines and panic attacks who was brought to the UH ED

by Airlife after pressing her Life Alert button due to a fall. Pt reports that she woke up stuck in between her bed and her

nightstand and was unable to get up on her own due to weakness of both right and left arms and legs, which has since

resolved. The last thing she remembers is sitting on her bed. The patient does not remember falling and does not know how

long she was unconscious. Pt reports urinary incontinence but denies fecal incontinence and tongue biting. Baseline

activity = L sided weakness s/p CVA 2006. Pt states that her first seizure occurred on Sept. 26, 2012 at her daughter’s

birthday party where she got into a fight with family members. She describes her seizures as beginning with a “sinking

spell” in which she feels that her BP is unchanged but her HR is decreased, followed by a fall in which she experiences

LOC. Per pt, she has never experienced a grand mal seizure. Her last seizure occurred Feb. 23, 2013 at her great

granddaughter’s birthday party where she got into a fight with family members once again. Pt cannot tell us how many

seizures she has had since these episodes began. She sees Dr. Mehendele and has had a 72-hour EEG within the last 4

months – results unknown at this time. ROS: -Gen: + subjective f/c over past 2 days, denies recent weight loss -HEENT: + new vertical diplopia when fatigued; denies new changes in hearing, nosebleeds,

bleeding gums and sore throat

-CV: denies chest pain, palpitations

-Pulm: denies SOB, cough -GI: +constipation, no n/v/d

-GU: denies dysuria

-Endo: denies polyuria, polydipsia -Skin: + painful rash under L breast that appeared 4 days ago

-Heme: denies any new bruising -MS: denies any new aches/pains -Neuro: + migraine w/in last 2 weeks, denies trouble swallowing, see HPI for more PMH: -Seizure d/o (diagnosed 2012)



-CVA 2006

-Chronic back pain

-Chronic migraines

-Panic attacks

PSH: -Growth removed from L lateral neck FH: -Parent w/ CVA -Daughter w/ seizure disorder (onset in mid-20s), pt describes daughter’s seizures as falls w/ LOC SH: -Pt lives alone in Centerville, TX; has a caretaker; unemployed

-Tobacco: 2 ppd

-ETOH: denies

-Drugs: denies


ALLG: Latex

MEDS: -Aspirin 81mg qday

-Amlodipine 10mg qday

-Gabapentin 300mg QID

-Soma 350mg TID -Topamax 100mg QAM, 200mg QPM -Phenergan -Norco PHYSICAL EXAM: VS: BP 104/64, HR 55, RR 20 HEENT: NCAT, mmm, non-icteral sclera CV/neck: rrr, no m/r/g, no carotid bruits Resp: CTAB, no w/c/r Mental Status: AAOx4; repetition, speech, language and comprehension, memory, concentration and attention intact Cranial Nerves: CN2: visual fields full to confrontation CN3,4,6: PERRLA, EOMI, no nystagmus; R partial ptosis CN5: sensation V1, V2, V3 intact to light touch on R, decreased on L CN7: facial

expressions intact bilaterally CN8: hearing decreased on L side compared to R (pt reports this is not new) CN9,10: palate

elevation symmetrical, no hoarseness of voice CN11: trapezius and sternocleidomastoid 5/5 strength BL CN12: no tongue

deviation, no fasiculations Motor: Tone/Bulk: Tone decreased on L, bulk equal bilaterally (no hypertrophy or atrophy) Strength: Note +L drift

R L Deltoids 5/5 4/5 Biceps 5/5 4/5 Triceps 5/5 4/5 Wrist ext 5/5 5/5 Wrist flex 5/5 5/5 Finger abd 5/5 5/5 Finger flex 5/5 5/5 Hip flex 5/5 4/5 Knee ext 5/5 5/5 Knee flex 5/5 5/5 Dorsiflex 5/5 5/5

Plantarflex 5/5 5/5

Sensory: Decreased light touch, temp, vibration, pinprick on L face, arm, leg Reflexes: 2+BL (all),

neg Babinski Coordination: dysmetria w/ FTN, HTS and rapid alternating movements on Left Gait: N/A (pt in

wheelchair) Meningeal signs: N/A


LABS: -CBC: 9.4/10.8/31.4/619 (yesterday 16.9/10.5/31.1/670) -CHEM:

136/3.2/104/23/4/.05/99; 9.0/2.2/3.9 -Glu 139 on admission, 108 this AM IMAGING: -CT head = calcification on falx cerebri indicating past calcified meningioma -CTA = no acute intracranial abnormality; Note: 6mm thyroid nodule and 9 mm nodule at R medial apex (possibly residua

of remote infection) A/P: NOTE THIS PLAN IS NO BUENO, SHOULD HAVE A PROBLEM LIST! 62 yo RHF w h/o seizures, HTN, angina, CVA, chronic migraines and panic attacks who presents s/p fall precipitated by

aura and associated w LOC and urinary incontinence. Physical exam consistent w h/o L sided weakness s/p CVA 2006

and significant for dysmetria w FTN, HTS and rapid alternating movements on left. Differential diagnosis includes

syncopal episode, seizure (focal progressing to generalized vs psychogenic) and TIA/CVA. -Admit for obs, place pt on telemetry -Check orthostatic BPs to r/o syncopal episode

-EEG and MRI to work up seizure vs TIA/CVA -Increase pt’s Topamax from 100mg QAM, 200mg QPM to 200mg BID

-Pt f/u w/ PCP regarding thyroid and lung nodules seen on CTA


NEURO PROGRESS NOTE (SOAP FORMAT) WRITE-UP EXAMPLE S: No acute events o/n. Asleep on exam this AM. Pt responds to pain but is not spontaneously opening eyes or responding

to commands. Unable to obtain ROS. O: VS: T=97.5, P=102, R=23, BP=86/56, O2 99% on 2L NC


-GENERAL: UTA orientation as pt is asleep and not easily arousable; withdraws to pain (sternal rub), decorticate

posturing w/ little spontaneous movement - -HEENT: NCAT, no JVD, non-icteric sclera, no carotid bruits auscultated

-CV: tachycardic w/ regular rhythm; no m/r/g -RESP: BL upper airway rhonchi; no wheezes/crackles auscultated

-ABD: +BS, soft, NT/ND -EXT: WWP, no c/c/e -NEURO: limited due to sedation… -CN: face symmetric, eyes conjugate, tongue w/ fasiculations -MOTOR: increased tone in upper and lower extremities, diffuse atrophy in upper and lower extremities, mild

intermittent fasiculations in left UE, decorticate posturing throughout (most prominent in BLLE, esp feet)

-SENSATION: withdraws to pain -REFLEXES: 3+ UE reflexes, no UE clonus, +Hoffman’s BL; UTA LE reflexes due to posturing












15) SOD CHLORIDE 0.9% BAG INJ in NS 1000 ML 30 ml/hr IV LABS:

CBC: 9.4/10.8/31.4/619 (yesterday 16.9/10.5/31.1/670) CHEM: 136/3.2/104/23/4/.05/99 Ca/Mg/PO4: 9.0/2.2/3.9 B12>1,500 HIV pending RPR pending BCx, UCx, clean catch: all NGTD (prelim report) SCx pending


IMAGING: 04/23/13 CXR Impression:

1. Minimal bibasilar atelectasis. 04/23/13 CT Chest Impression:

1. No pulmonary embolism evident on this exam, which is slightly limited due to respiratory motion. 2. Bronchial wall thickening with intraluminal debris and lung

parenchymal nodular/tree-in-bud opacities in a predominantly lower

lobe distribution compatible with bronchopneumonia. There is also

bibasilar atelectasis, although superimposed infection is not excluded. 04/25/13 MRI Report:

STUDY: Noncontrast and contrast enhanced Brain MRI

HISTORY: Evaluation of progressive dementia; progressive

dementia, dysphagia, now with respiratory weakness, in the

differentials are ALS versus dementia.

COMPARISON: CT head without contrast from 09/06/2012

FINDINGS: A 1.1 x 1.1 cm lesion is seen arising to the left of

the falx cerebri at the vertex with a dural tail, appearing slightly hypointense on T1 and T2-weighted images, and showing

enhancement, consistent with a meningioma.

There is parenchymal atrophy, which appears more prominent in the

frontotemporal lobes, with associated ex vacuo dilation of the

ventricular system.

T2/FLAIR hyperintensity along the preventricular white matter likely

represent chronic microvascular ischemic changes. Hypodensities in

the bilateral basal ganglia on T1 and FLAIR images show no

surrounding gliosis, and may represent prominent perivascular


There is no extraaxial collection or midline shift. There is no

abnormal restricted diffusion. T2 gradient sequences reveal no remote

hemorrhage. Posterior fossa structures appear normal. The dominant

normal intracranial flow voids are seen.

The orbital soft tissues, soft tissues immediately underneath the

skull base appear grossly normal. No significant abnormality is

seen of the visualized paranasal sinuses and within the temporal


Impression: 1. Brain parenchymal atrophy, greater than expected for the patient's age. Questionable disproportionate

involvement of the frontotemporal lobes raises concern for frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

2. 1.1 cm left parafalcine meningioma at the vertex.

3. Chronic macrovascular ischemic changes.


ASSESSMENT & PLAN: 58 yo F w/ PMH hypothyroidism, depression, and CLBP since early 20s w/ worsening

progressive dementia associated w/ dysarthria, dysphagia, weakness, and weight loss who is currently admitted w/ dx of

aspiration PNA and is being worked up for “ALS plus”.

Pneumonia: Likely aspiration 2/2 pt’s worsening dysphagia. CXR shows bibasilar atelectasis, CT chest shows

bronchial wall thickening with intraluminal debris and lung parenchymal nodular/tree-in-bud opacities in a

predominantly lower lobe distribution compatible with bronchopneumonia. Pt appears to be improving after

administration of abx. Procalcitonin was negative. Deescalate abx pending cultures. --Cefepime 1G q8h x8 days (pt on day 4/8)

--Clindamycin 600MG q8h x8 days (pt on day 3/8)

--Continue NC at 2L --Recommend Bipap o/n

--Aspiration precautions

--Cultures pending Dysphagia: Likely 2/2 neurodegenerative process.

--Aspiration precautions --Per speech consult: pt able to tolerate thin liquid diet

--Video Fluoroscopic Swallow Study recommended --Pt scheduled to Speech Swallow Clinic on 5/16 @ 1415 --Pt will be followed by speech pathology during inpatient stay. Dementia NOS/Neurodegenerative d/o NOS: -Likely to be ALS w/ associated frontotemporal dementia (“ALS plus”). Pt has “clinically definite” ALS based on the

following positive World Federation of Neurology ALS criteria: UMN and LMN signs in bulbar region (tongue

fasiculations, dysphagia), cervical region (UE atrophy and RUE fasiculations w/ increased tone, hyperreflexia and

+Hoffman’s in UE), and lumbosacral (atrophy as well as increased tone and decorticate posturing in LE). The patient also

has the following common complications of ALS: progressive inablitiy to perform ADLs, deterioration of ambulation,

aspiration pneumonia, and respiratory insufficiency. Although dementia is rarely associated w/ ALS, when it has been

reported it is often of the frontotemporal type which is consistent w/ the findings on this patient’s recent MRI. -A less likely dx to consider is adult-onset/late-onset Tay Sachs (LOTS) dz as pt is of Polish descent, although not Jewish,

and displays the following characteristics: clumsiness and muscle weakness in the legs, evidence of mental health

problems (dx depression), gradual loss of skills (cane to walker to wheelchair), and speech and swallowing difficulties.

Unfortunately, you will not find a cherry-red spot on the macula in pts w/ LOTS. Dementia has been listed as a possible

symptom in pts with Tay-Sachs. -Lastly, I would consider multisystem atrophy in my differential as this often presents w/ an akinetic rigidity in

movement, problems w/ balance, and incontinence which is interesting as this pt first presented in September of 2009 w/

cc of LE weakness, multiple falls and urinary incontinence. It may also be noted that a percentage of MSA pts will also

have cognitive decline. MRI in pts with MSA can be totally normal but if not, expected MRI findings in MSA are as

follows: Atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem in OPCA and striatonigral degeneration (SND), No vascular damage, No

multi-infarct pattern in brainNo other lesions, Hyperintensity in the pons, peduncles, and cerebellum on T2-weighted and

proton density–weighted MRI scans. You may also see slitlike hyperintensity on T2-weighted and proton density–

weighted MRI scans; a cruciform hyperintensity in the pons on T2-weighted MRI, known as the hot cross bun sign. While

this is diagnostically helpful, it is not specific to MSA. -Possible diagnostic tests to order are as follows…

--Anti-ganglioside MI antibody testing to r/o ALS

--Hexosaminidase A testing to r/o LOTS --Alpha synuclein immunochemistry showing GCIs that are ubiquitin-positive, tau-positive, and alpha-synuclein ̶ positive -

--Oligodendroglial inclusions (on histology) to r/o MSA Hypothyroidism: TSH 1.5 (WNL)

--Continue Levothyroxine 0.125mg daily


DVT PPX --Lovenox 40mg SC INJ daily Dispo --Pt is full code --Plan to DC to home w/ husband after resolution of PNA and pending neuro evaluation

--Consider having SW discuss future care options w/ husband


SURGERY: How to Shine

In the OR o Be there EARLY!!! o The scrub tech will make or break your surgery experience; be nice to them always, say please, thank you,

sir, ma’am, etc, put your hands where they tell you to, don’t touch anything unless told to touch it!

o Act like you are supposed to be there. Walk in, introduce yourself, ask where you can pull gloves, pull

them before anyone scrubs in, and open them and hand them to the tech unless they tell you to drop it

on their field. o Scrub when your resident does and scrub for just a little bit longer than they do

o Know your anatomy for when you get asked questions o Read about the case before and have 1-2 questions to ask either about the procedure, the patient, why

they are doing something, but … o Don’t ask questions when you see a lot of blood or when they are doing something very delicate

like sewing onto a beating heart o At the beginning of the week ask someone for the case list so you know what to prepare for!

During rounds

o Be there EARLY!!! o Know about your patients and their social history, past medical hx, drug history, family history, etc.

these are often things the residents don’t have time or attention to ask o Know all the numbers and details for post-op days 1 and maybe 2. After that, they want to

know: 1.) pain control, 2.) how are they eating? 3.) are they pooping yet/passing gas?

4.) walking? 5.) can they go home? o Know what lines they have in (ex: right peripheral iv, L IJ central line) o For plans you can always add pull foley, d/c central line (if they don’t need it), transition to PO

pain control, consult PT/OT, the little things that get them moving out of the ICU, out of the

hospital, and going home

On Trauma Call

o Buy trauma shears (you can find cheap ones on o Be aggressive by knowing what you are supposed to


fill out the four pager,

cut clothes off,

check for distal pulses,

check for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of


when they roll the patient, check their back--run your fingers down their spine to check for any

deformity or point tenderness

roll the bed to the CT scanner and then back to the trauma bay o Always have gloves on o Remember to go back and fill out labs on the four pager o Volunteer to do procedures like arterial lines, venous blood gases, starting IVs. Don’t be offended if

they say no, or if they give you one or two tries before taking over, these are emergency cases after all!

Trauma schedule


o On trauma rotation: On call every 4 days

o Not on trauma rotation: 6 call days for the 8 week rotation

**Call day: 6pm – 6am, after your regular day shift, thus you essentially work 24hr+

**The post call day is off: Example, if your call day is Monday, you show up to your

Monday shift, generally 6am – 6pm, then go to trauma bay 6pm-6am, which is now

Tuesday. You are expected to return at 6am Wednesday.

Good books for studying: o NMS Surgery Casebook

o Surgical Recall o Netters…KNOW YOUR ANATOMY!!!

Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.

Problem Based SOAP Note (good for floor)









0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Pestana's Surgery Notes

Surgery review.pdf on google drive

Uworld Surgery Section

Uworld Medicine Section

NMS Surgery Casebook

Case Files


Lange Q&A



___ yo M/F s/p _________________________________________ due to ______________________ on POD#___

S Overnight events:

Pain & pain meds:

PO: UOP: BMs: Ambulatory:

nausea fever dizziness muscle weakness sensation vomiting chills swelling myalgia headache diarrhea chest pain claudication numbness syncope constipation SOB rest pain palpitations vision loss O Tm HR RR BP PO2 Ins: Outs: Drains: GEN: AOx3, NAD HEENT: no JVD, PERRLA, oral mucosa without lesions, no carotid bruits CV: RRR, no m/r/g RESP: CTAB, no wheezing/rhonchi/crackles ABD: soft, NT/ND, + BS, no palpable masses, organomegaly, no abdominal bruits UE: WWP, palpable radial pulse, good capillary refill, m. strength 5/5 LE: WWP, m. strength 5/5, 2+ DTRs, sensation intact, dressing C/D/I

Labs: Imaging: A/P

___ yo M/F s/p _____________________________________ due to _____________________ on POD#___

Problem/Plan: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)


Code Status:

Systems Based SOAP Note (good for SICU)


yo M/F on POD # s/p .

Overnight events:


Pt alert and oriented x4, moving all extremities well. Pain well/not well controlled on (pain meds and doses) , currently rated as /10.


Chest pain? On exam, heart sounds regular rate and rhythm, no S3/S4, murmurs, rubs or gallops. HR range: BP range: MAP range: CVP: CO:

Chest tube output:


Cardiac Meds:


SOB, cough, dyspnea? Exam: lungs sound clear to auscultation bilaterally.

Vent settings:



Pain? Flatus? Bowel movement? Exam: bowel sounds, non-tender, non-distended

Ca: Mg: PO4:



Diet: GU:

Foley in place?

In: Out: Net: UOP: Endo:

Last 3 glucoses:

Diabetes regimen Ext/Skin:

Exam: warm and well perfused, dressing in place/ wound appears clean, dry, and intact




Antibiotics (dose, day_____out of______)

Lines in place: Prophylaxis: A/P

___ yo M/F s/p _____________________________________ due to _____________________ on POD#___




OB morning rounds:

o Please make an effort to understand TPAL correctly (create some scenarios where there were twins or where a child died so that when this actually happens you’ll be correctly reporting this mom’s Gs and Ps)

o When looking up the mom in the morning, look up the baby too!

1. They’ll be named: Baby Boy/Baby Girl and then their mom’s last name, i.e. Baby Boy Ramirez

o Ask EVERY question on the template, do NOT be too shy to ask about BM/flatus

o Please know if your pt has a foley in, if so, look at the urine and make sure it’s normal o Know the EBL from the delivery

1. >500cc for SVD and >1,000cc for C/S is considered post-partum hemorrhage

2. Know your pts H/H, OB likes a goal of >8/24 (if your pt’s H/H is <8/24, consider transfusing…how much? 1U pRBCincrease of 1/3 on the H/H)

o Know what happened…was this mom pre-eclamptic or eclamptic? 1. If so, what’s her Mg level? How are her reflexes?

Hyporeflexia is a sign of Mg toxicity! o Does she have DM? Last 3 glucoses please! o HTN? BP range please! o Has it been 48 hours? Remove c/s bandage…do this quickly! “One motion, right off!” - Seinfeld

OB clinic:

o If you do/ask nothing else…2 THINGS AND 4 QUESTIONS!!! 1. Fundal height (from the pubic symphisis to the top of the uterus)

Before 20-24 weeks, it’s probably below the umbilicus After this, the cm should correspond to the weeks +/- 2

Toward the end of the pregnancy (around 36-38 weeks), it is normal for the cm to

decrease as the baby is descending at this point 2. Fetal heart tones

Please know that you may not hear this before 12 weeks, please do not lie and make up

a heart rate, you will look dumb 3. Is your baby moving? Esta moviendo su bebe? 4. Any vagin*l bleeding? Sangre por la vagin*? 5. Any vagin*l fluids/fluid loss? Ha salido flujo por la vagin*? 6. Have you had contractions? Ha sentido contracciones?

When did they start? Cuando empezaron? How often are they happening? Cuanta tiene

en una hora? How long do they last? Cuanto tiempo duran? What do they feel like? Como sienten?

o Memorize the “baby book” and know what the moms need at each visit (based on weeks gestation) o Look for the template for Dr. Kost when on gyn onc clinic!!! IMPORTANT!!!

OB triage: You can scrub in that morning and then use Avagard the rest of the day (speedy)

o DO NOT FORGET the psych/abuse screen!!! Good books for studying: Case Files, Blueprints, UWORLD Q-bank

o For Case Files: Read what you’re on! AKA when you’re on OB, only read the OB stuff and then read the GYN stuff when you get to GYN…sounds obvious but some people just read the book in order…


Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.







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Uworld OBGYN section


Case Files



First Aid OBGYN




S: No acute events overnight. Pt has no complaints this morning. Pain well controlled with ______.

Tolerating a low residue/regular diet without nausea or vomiting. Foley in place draining clear yellow

urine. Voiding without difficulty, Foley removed yesterday. Ambulating without difficulty. ____ flatus, _____ BM. Minimal lochia. Denies headache, vision changes, dizziness, RUQ pain, palpitations, and

SOB. Patient is breast and bottle feeding infant without difficulty and desires ____ for contraception. O: VS: Tm Tc HR BP RR O2 I/O: PHYSICAL EXAM: GEN: AAOx3, NAD

HEENT: NCAT CV: RRR, no m/r/g, flow murmur

RESP: CTAB, no rales, ronchi ABD: +BS, appropriately tender/ non-tender to palpation, uterus @ umbilicus, dressing c/d/i

OR dressing removed and wound is c/d/i

EXT: no c/c/e, negative Homan’s LABS: Pull in prenatal labs Any relevant labs since delivery A/P: ____ yo now G__P___ s/p __c/s or NSVD or pre-term c-section, etc.___ secondary to ______ at _____ weeks on ___date__ at __time__. POD/PPD # _____. Skin incision closed with _____. Mother and

baby doing well. 1. PPD # ____ - UOP_____ since _____ (ONLY IF FOLEY) - Pre/ Post Hct: _______ (EBL ____) 2. Post partum – Rh ___, Rubella ___, GBS____ (Abx ___ first dose at ____), Chlamydia ___, GC ___,

HIV ____, RPR ____, HBsAg ____, 1 hour glucose testing _____ 3. OTHER PROBLEMS (PPH, HTN, chorio (last fever!), etc.) PLAN: - Continue postpartum care – 1

st time mom, c-sections, teenage mom, breast feeding for 1

st time all

stay 48 hours - Discontinue Foley

- Advance diet as tolerated

- Continue ___ for pain control

- Pelvic rest for 6 weeks

- Rx given/ to be given (CHECK CHART!) for Norco, Motrin, FeSO4, Surfak, and PNV

- Rh ____; no further action needed/RhoGam given ____

- Glucose testing ____; no action needed/ follow up in clinic for 2 hour GTT

- Rubella ______; no further action/ MMR

- Follow up in 6 weeks for post partum check

- Anticipate discharge home tomorrow/ today

- _____ for contraception; pt breast and bottle feeding


Name: MRN: CC: HPI: _______ y/o G_____P_______ ROS:

N/V Abd Pain Diarrhea Constipation

Fever/Chills Dysuria VB Other: ___________________

OBHx: (TPAL, SVD vs C/S &why)


Pap: Abnl Pap: Mam: Abnl Mam:

STDs (disease/year/tx):

Birth Control: LMP: ___/____/____

Last intercourse/no of partners:

Age at menarche:

Usual menstrual cycle: ____ days ____bleeding days


Uterine CA

PSH: Ovarian CA

Breast CA

SH: T ____ E ____ D____ Cervical CA

Colon CA



Vitals: T: _____ HR: _____RR: _____ BP: _________ Height:_______ Weight:______


HEENT: Heart: Lung: Abd: Ext:



PSYCH: How to Shine

Know your AMSIT!!! Really know the diagnostic criteria for depression, schizophrenia (vs. schizoaffective vs.

schizotypal, vs. schizoid), bipolar disorder, PTSD

Ask orientation every day!! They might fool you into thinking they are aware of where they are,

by seeming normal, but they might think they are in a hospital…on a spaceship

o If they don’t know the date, ask what month, if they don’t know the month, ask what year;

if they don’t know that, ask what season or the weather outside

o You lose your orientation in the order of: time, place, person

o Oriented x4 means you know why you are in the hospital

Ask SI/HI every day!!! Know details about their drinking and drug history. Don’t be satisfied when they say 4 drinks a day--

of what (beer vs. wine vs. liquor), how much (12 oz, 24 oz, 32 oz, 1 shot, 1 double shot, 1 24 oz

bottle of wine vs. 1 L bottle of wine). Know how much of a drug they have been doing, for how long,

have they ever tried quitting? Know when their last drink was! Important for symptoms of detox – you have to worry about seizures

for up to 72 hours

Have they ever tried rehab before? How many times? Why didn’t it work? Why are the motivated to do

it now?

Know a good social history- who do they live with, abuse at home, boyfriend/girlfriend, social support,

religion, kids, pets Suicide is a scary, sensitive topic, but ask details. How long have they felt this way? Did they

have a plan? (cutting wrists vs. stepping out into traffic vs. shooting themselves) What

stopped them? Why?

The attending’s and residents may use a mix of DSM-IV and DSM-V (even though they

should be using only DSM-V)---your shelf will still be testing over DSM-IV

Good books for studying: o Your Psychopath syllabus (from MS1/MS2 years)

o Lange Psych questions o First Aid for Psychiatry

o UWorld Q bank


Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.






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First Aid for Psychiatry

Lange Q&A Psychiatry

Uworld Psychiatry section







Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Fluoxetine Prozac Longest t½ (no need to taper); safe in pregnancy & children (only

FDA approved antidepressant use in children); can elevate levels

of neuroleptics, leading to ↑ SE; CYP450 inhibitor

Sertraline Zoloft GI SE, very few drug interactions; CYP450 inhibitor

Paroxetine Paxil More anticholinergic SE; short t ½ leading to withdrawal

phenomena; highly protein bound leading to several drug

interactions; CYP450 inhibitor

Fluvoxamine Luvox Approved only for use in OCD; drug interactions;n/v common;

CYP450 inhibitor

Citalopram Celexa Fewest drug interactions; fewest sexual SE

Escitalopram Lexapro Anxiety & Depression

Venlafaxine (SNRI) Effexor MAD, ADHD, GAD & Panic d/o; can ↑BP – Pristiq

(desvenlafaxine) new form

Duloxetine (SNRI) Cymbalta Dual action (5HT & NE); MDD & GAD; neuropathic pain

(fibromyalgia); CYP450 inhibitor – caution in liver disease and


- Common SE of SSRIs include sexual dysfunction (example: retrograde ejacul*tion, which

patients describe as a burning sensation during ejacul*tion)

- Serotonin syndrome: confusion, flushing, diaphoresis, tremor, myoclonic jerks, hyperthermia,

hypertonicity, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, death; occurs when SSRI + MAOI or SSRI + cough


TCAs – inhibit reuptake of NE & 5HT; can be lethal in OD (tertiary amines) – tx is IV sodium

bicarbonate; anticholinergic SE

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Amitriptyline Elavil Chronic pain, migraines, insomnia

Clomipramine Anafranil OCD tx

Imipramine Tofranil Bedwetting (enuresis) and panic disorder; IM form

Doxepin Adapin, Sinequan Sleep aid in low doses, useful in treating chronic pain

Desipramine Norpramin, Pertofrane Secondary amine; least sedating, least anticholinergic

Nortriptyline Aventyl, Pamelor Secondary amine; least likely to cause orthostatic

hypotension, useful in treating chronic pain

Amoxapine Asendin Tetracyclic; EPS SE

Maprotiline Ludiomil Tetracyclic; higher rates of seizure, arrhythmia

HAM side effects:

- antiHistamine: sedation, weight gain

- antiAdrenergic: hypotension, cardiovascular SE

- antiMuscarinic: dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary


Major complications – 3 C’s

- Cardiotoxicity

- Convulsions

- Coma


MAOIs – prevent inactivation of NE (MAO-B), 5HT (MAO-A), DA, tyramine (irreversibly binds MAO-

A, -B)

Generic Name Brand Name

Isocarboxazid Marplan

Phenelzine Nardil

Tranylcypromine Parnate

- HTN crisis when combined with tyramine in food

- considered more effective in atypical depression



Typicals/First generation/Neuroleptics: block D2 receptors

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Chlorpromazine Thorazine Low potency; SE: orthostatic hypotension, bluish skin

discoloration, photosensitivity; cardiovascular risk (heart block &

vtach); ↑ seizure risk

Used to treat N/V and intractable hiccups

Thioridazine Mellaril Low Potency; No longer used in the U.S.; retinitis pigmentosa

Loxapine Loxitane Midpotency; higher risk for seizure; metabolite is antidepressant

Thithixene Navane Midpotency; can cause ocular pigment changes

Trifluoperazine Stelazine Midpotency; can reduce anxiety

Perphenazine Trilafon Midpotency

Haloperidol Haldol High potency; EPS; long acting IM form available; very effective

in controlling hallucinations

Fluphenazine Proixin High potency; EPS; long acting IM form available

Pimozide Orap High potency; EPS, heart block, vtach, cardiac SE

- EPS: reversible, occurs within days of new med; tx with anticholinergic benzotropine (Cogentin),

antihistaminergic diphenhydramine (Benadryl), or antiparkinsonian amantadine (Symmetrel);

dopamine in nigrostriatum

o Parkinsonism: masklike facies, cogwheel rigidity, pill-rolling tremor

o Akathisia: restlessness and agitation (inability to sit still)

o Dystonia: sustained contraction of muscles of neck, tongue, eyes, diaphragm






Bupropion Wellbutrin NE + DA reuptake inhibitor; smoking cessation; can lower seizure

threshold so use with caution in epilepsy and eating disorders, lack of

sexual SE

Use in atypical depression because causes ↓appetite, more energy, courage

Trazodone Desyrel Insomnia; refractory depression, anxiety; no sexual SE or ↓REM; SE:


Nefazodone Serzone Rare but serious liver failure; similar to trazodone

Mirtazapine Remeron α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist; refractory MDD; weight gain; use in

elderly (helps with sleep and appetite) and alcoholics– antihistamine SE,

little GI SE

Protriptyline Vivactil

Trimipramine Surmontil


- Hyperprolactinemia: occurs with high-potency typicals and risperidone; DA in

tuberoinfundibular area

- Tardive dyskinesia: grimacing and tongue protrusion; long term antipsychotic use; can be


- Acute dystonia: hours to days; abnormal postures/twisting

- Positive sx of schizophrenia treated through mesolimbic dopamine pathway

- Negative sx dopamine in mesocortical pathway


Atypicals/Second generation: block DA (D2) and 5HT (2A) receptors

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Clozapine Clozaril Less likely to cause TD; monitor for agranulocytosis and

seizures; more anticholinergic SE (tachycardia &

hypersalivation); only antipsychotic shown to ↓ risk of suicide;

30% of treatment resistant psychosis will respond to clozaril

use in withdrawal from opioids

Risperidone Risperdal Can ↑ prolactin; long-acting IM form called Consta; use in mania

Quetiapine Seroquel Sedation and orthostatic hypotension; works on different DA

receptors in Parkinson patients; also use in bipolar patients


Olanzapine Zyprexa “windex” of psychiatry; weight gain/metabolic syndrome SE –

use for mania/hypomania, psychosis, drug withdrawal

Ziprasidone Geodon Less weight gain; bipolar/schizophrenia; use for extreme

agitation; may prolong QT interval

Aripirazole Abilify +/- sx for schizophrenia, add to Lexapro for depression; less

weight gain; partial D2 agonism; use in mania

Paliperidone Invega,

Sustenna (IM)

Metabolite of risperidone; schizophrenia, paranoid/suspiciousness

SE: muscle stiffness, drooling (give with benztropine to ↓SE)

Asenapine Saphris Use in PTSD (flashbacks), schizophrenia, and bipolar I

Iloperidone Fanapt

Lurasidone Latuda Safe in pregnancy; used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar I

- Less likely to cause EPS, TD, NMS; more effective in treating negative sx of schizophrenia

- Can be used to treat acute mania, bipolar disorder, and as adjunct in unipolar depression; also

used for personality disorders, Tourette’s

- Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Fever (most common presenting sx), Autonomic instability

(tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis), Leukocytosis, Tremor, Elevated CPK, Rigidity (“lead

pipe”) Delirium; can be caused by all antipsychotics at any time; medical emergency (20%

mortality rate)



Mood Stabilizers

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Lithium Only mood stabilizer to show ↓ suicidality; monitor Li blood

levels, creatinine, and TSH (metabolized by kidneys), narrow

therapeutic index (toxic levels cause altered mental status,

tremors, convulsions), Nephrogenic DI, weight gain, teratogen

(Ebstein’s anomaly)

Carbamazepine Tegretol Useful in treating mixed episodes and rapid-cycling bipolar; tx

in trigeminal neuralgia; CYP450 inducer; many SE (GI and

CNS), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, hepatitis, teratogen

Valproic Acid

(divalproex sodium)



Monitor LFTs and CBC; PCOS in ♀, ↑NH4 in ♂, pancreatitis;

anger, hypomania, mixed bipolar

Lamotrigine Lamictal Bipolar depression; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; valproate will ↑

lamotrigine levels and lamotrigine will ↓ valproate levels

Oxcarbazepine Trileptal Better tolerated than carbamazepine and just as effective; anger


Gabapentin Neurontin Used adjunctively to help with anxiety & sleep (little efficacy in


Pregabalin Lyrica GAD and fibromyalgia (neuropathic pain); (little efficacy in


Tiagabine Gabitril Anxiety

Topiramate Topamax Impulse control & anxiety; can lead to weight loss; SE:

cognitive slowing, hypocholermic, non-anion gap metabolic

acidosis and kidney stones

Potentiates GABA & inhibits glutamate receptors; reduces

cravings for EtOH

- Can be used together with antidepressants and antipsychotics to help potentiate those medications; also used

in enhancement of abstinence in alcoholism

- Treatment of aggression and impulsivity

- Blood levels are useful for lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and clozapine

- Common SE include GI, weight gain, sedation, hepatotoxicity, ↑ ammonia, teratogenic


Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Dextroamphetamine Dexedrine ADHD

Amphetamine Adderall (6hr),

Vivans (12hr)

ADHD; monitor BP and watch for weight loss, insomnia

Methylphenidate Ritalin (4hr),

Concerta (12hr)

ADHD; CNS stimulant; watch for leukopenia, anemia, ↑


Atomoxetine Strattera ADHD; Presynaptic NE reuptake inhibitor; non-stimulant,

less appetite suppression and insomnia; concentration and


Modafanil Provigil Used in narcolepsy

Guanfacine Intuniv FDA approved nonstimulant, 24hr; ADHD and HTN; α2


Clonidine Kapvay Same as above, except 12hr


Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Donepezil Aricept Mild to moderate dementia

Galantamine Reminyl

Rivastigmine Excelon Patch; less SE

Tacrine Cognex

Memantine Namenda Moderate to severe dementia; better with ACh Inhibitor

Anxiolytics Benzodiazepines – potentiates the effects of GABA; potential for abuse

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Diazepam Valium t ½ = 20hr; Detox from EtOH, other anxiolytics, seizures

Clonazepam Klonopin t ½ = 10 hr; Panic attacks; avoid with renal dysfunction

Alprazolam Xanax t ½ = 6 hr; anxiety

Lorazepam Ativan t ½ = 8 hr; agitation, detox

Oxazepam Serax detox

Temazepam Restoril Affects respiratory center; tx of insomnia short-term; not

metabolized by liver

Triazolam Halcion Tx of insomnia, used in medical and surgical settings (short t


Midazolam Versed Medical and surgical settings (short t ½)

- Careful in elderly (can increase risk for falls)

- LOT benzos—safe to use in alcoholics/impaired liver function; does not require phase I/oxidation

- Benzo OD flumazenil

Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotics

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Zolpidem Ambien Selective receptor binding to benzo receptor 1 sedation

(short-term insomnia)

SE: anterograde amnesia, sleepwalking, GI effects,


Zaleplon Sonata Same as above

Eszopiclone Lunesta Same as above

Diphenhydramine Benadryl Antihistamine; sedation

Ramelteon Rozerem Selective melatonin MT1 and MT2 agonist; no tolerance or


Non-Benzodiazepine Anxiolytics

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Buspirone BuSpar 5HT-1A (partial agonist), slower onset (1-2 weeks), often used

in combination with another anti-anxiety agent

Does not potentiate CNS depression of alcohol, so can use in


Hydroxyzine Atarax Antihistamine; short-term and quick acting; useful in patients

who cannot take benzodiazepines

Propranolol Beta-blocker; can be used to treat akathisia and panic attacks

- Barbiturates (butalbitol, phenobarbital, amobarbitol, pentobarbital): CYP 450 inducer

- Barbiturate ODalkalinize urine with sodium bicarbonate to promote renal excretion


Other meds used in the psych wards:

Generic Name Brand Name Notes

Oxycodone Oxycontin

Hydrocodone/acetaminophen Vicodin

Oxycodone/acetaminophen Percocet

Carisoprodol Soma Pain killer/muscle relaxer

Clinical Notes:

High ammonia levels can cause hallucinations

o Treat with 5mg Neomycin OR

o Xifaxan (Rifaximin) – stronger, for more severe cases

Giving antidepressants to psychotic patients can increase their psychosis

Giving antidepressants to bipolar patients may exacerbate/cause an acute mania

Catatonia: haloperidol + lorazepam

Acute mania: Zyprexa, Depakote, Haldol PRN

Drug Induced Psychosis (specifically with designer drugs): Zyprexa+ Clonazepam

Barbiturate ODalkalinize urine with sodium bicarbonate to promote renal excretion

Benzodiazepine ODFlumazenil

Opiate ODNaloxone/naltrexone – both opioid antagonists

o Buprenorphine/Suboxone – heroin withdrawal

o Methadone – “gold standard” in pregnant opioid dependent patients

LOT benzos safe to use in liver damage; does not require phase 1/oxidation

o Lorazepam

o Oxazepam

o Temazepam

Withdrawal from opioids: clonidine (α2 adrenergic antagonist)

Medications for EtOH dependence:

o Disuliram (Antabuse): blocks aldehyde dehydrogenase, causes adverse reaction to EtOH

o Naltrexone (Revia, Vivitrol – IM): opioid receptor blocker; ↓ craving and “high” associated with alcohol

o Acamprosate (Campral): similar to GABA; prevent relapse; can be used in liver disease, but contraindicated

in severe renal disease

- Dilantin (Phenytoin) & Benzos for delirium tremens

- Thiamine (B1) BEFORE glucose

Lexapro and Prozac are the only FDA approved antidepressant medications for children

Common comorbidities of ADHD:

- Oppositional defiant disorder

- Conduct disorder

- Substance abuse

- Depressive disorder

- Anxiety

- Ticks

- Learning disorders

CAGE Questionnaire

• Have you ever felt you should Cut down on your drinking?

• Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?

• Have you ever felt bad or Guilty about your drinking?

• Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover (Eye opener)?





CC: "I don't think people should take stimulants." The patient is brought in by police on Emergency Detention.

HPI: Pt is a 32 yo male with a hx of paranoid schizophrenia diagnosed in 2000 with decompensation in the context of lapse of medication compliance. Per pts mother, she contacted police because she was concerned about his safety. Pt was a long-time patient of Dr. C in Telemedicine, which was closed 4-6 weeks ago. Since then, pt has not taken medications, and has voiced plans for suicide. Mother also reports that pt has auditory hallucinations which command him to hurt himself, and the voices seem to be escalating. Per record, pt has been vegetarian for 10 years, and per mother, recently became vegan, has not been eating adequately, and recently lost 50 pounds. Pt also suffers from Gilbert's Syndrome, which was diagnosed in 2006, and continues to have hyperbilirubinemia. In PES interview, pt endorses mother's report, but denies that voices are commanding him to hurt himself, rather stating that they are "friendly" and "the word of God." Pt reports that he has no plan to kill himself. He does report in the PES that he has recently been fasting for 3 months on just water and vitamins, and is now ready to eat.

On initial evaluation pt reports feeling "happy". He requests to go back to sleep as he has been tired and has not slept much. He goes on to tell MD about the voices he has been hearing for a few weeks since he stopped taking his medication. He reports that the voices are actually "rational projections" which help him connect psychically with other people who also have the ability. He denies that the hallucinations are commanding him to kill or hurt himself or others. He reports that he feels that he needs his medications again because there is a current "overload of different channels" and he feels “overwhelmed with the voices.” He had done well on medications in the past, but stopped taking them because he feels that people "shouldn't be on stimulants." Pt with loose associations, tangentiality, thought broadcasting, thought insertion, ideas of reference, and neologisms and hyper-religiosity during interview.

After admission, pt became agitated when he did not receive his vegetarian tray that he requested. He became disruptive and angry, knocking pictures off walls and talking to himself. Pt was given Haldol 5mg Ativan 2mg and Benadryl 50mg IM, and calmed after a few minutes.

Per chart review, pt has had several hospitalizations, beginning in 9/2006 when pt had suicidal ideation and police was called. During that visit, pt was consulted by medicine for jaundice and scleral icterus, who determined that hyperbilirubinemia and abnormal labs were consistent with Gilbert's syndrome. Pt was floridly psychotic endorsing AH, VH, SI, insomnia, ideas of reference, thought insertion, difficulty concentrating, and was displaying illogical ideas, tangential/circ*mstantial thought, flight of ideas, paranoid, thought. Pt was started on Risperdal for his psychotic symptoms and improved. Pt was again admitted to 7th floor on 10/18/06 with similar symptoms and medication non-compliance. Pt had been on risperdal 1mg QAM and 3mg QHS, so was increased to Risperdal 2mg

QAM and 3mg QHS. Pt felt risperdal made him too sedated, so Haldol 5mg QHS was given, and suggested to give Haldol dec. Pt was discharged on 10/20/12 with dose of Haldol Dec 100mg IM. He was also discharged with follow up with medicine for Gilbert's. Pt was again seen in the PES on 1/28/08 for suicidal ideation and anxiety expressed to his mother as well as paranoia that people were out to get him, in the context of medication non-compliance. Pt denied AVH at this time. Pt was to follow up with outpt provider Dr. B. Pt was again seen as inpatient in Feb 2008 brought in by his mother for worsening paranoia and auditory hallucinations, in addition to treatment non compliance with telecare. At this time, pt was restarted on Zyprexa 20mg daily and Topamax 50mg daily as he had been on this as an outpatient. Pt was also asked to follow up with telecare Dr. B. Pt was again seen in PES on 4/18/2012 for auditory hallucinations referred from crisis center. Pt with command hallucinations he reports caused him to become depressed. Mother was also concerned about pt "not eating right" as he had been a vegetarian and now became more focused on his diet only eating very limited types of foods. Pt on zyprexa 20mg at this time, took

medications and denied SI/HI/AVH while in the PES. PPsychHx: Past Hospitalizations (date/location): States he has been hospitalized 7 times including at UH. Past Psychiatric Medications: Risperdal and Zyprexa. Past Psychiatric Diagnoses: Schizophrenia. Outpatient Treatment (clinic/provider): Dr. C. Previous Suicide Attempts (how many, when, means used, hospitalized?): denies.


PMH: Gilbert’s syndrome MEDS:

Topamax 50 mg oral tablet: 1 tab(s) orally 2 times a day x 30 days, Active, 60, None Olanzapine 20 mg oral tablet: 1 tab(s) orally once a day (at bedtime) x 30 days, Active, 30, None


Family Psychiatric History: mother with depression



Patient lives: Alone in apartment in SA. Performs all ADLs, mother helps with finances

Employment: Disabled, receives disability check Physical Activity: Sedentary Lifestyle

Tobacco Use or Exposure: 1ppd x 6 years, recently quit Alcohol Use: Occasional 12 oz beer Illicit Drug Use: Denies

Development / Social History: Development history: (incl. delays, educational history, medical history, employment history, family relationships) Pt raised by mother. Only child. Placed in Special education in elem school, went through 11th grade, dropped out. Never married, no children. Mental Status Exam:

Appearance: Appears stated age, thin body habitus. Pt appropriately dressed with good hygiene. Speech spontaneous and appropriate, easily understood and of avg rate and rhythm. He maintains eye contact, is cooperative with examiner, alert and attentive, with neither increased nor decreased psychom*otor activity.

Mood: “Happy”, with congruent, expansive affect Sensorium: Orientedx4. Concentration good, memory grossly intact Intelligence: Avg, based on fund of information and vocabulary Thought: Coherent, illogical, not goal directed.

Tangential/circ*mstantial with loose associations, tangentiality, thought broadcasting, thought insertion, ideas of reference, neologisms and hyper-religiosity. Denies SI/HI

Judgment: severely impaired Insight: Limited

ASSESMENT/PLAN: Axis I: Chronic paranoid schizophrenia, MD episode, Panic d/o NOS Axis II: none Axis III: Gilbert’s Syndrome Axis IV: Problems with access to health care services, Other psychosocial and environmental problems, Chronic mental illness Axis V: 30-21: Behavior is considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations OR serious impairment in communication or judgment (e.g., sometimes incoherent, acts grossly inappropriately, suicidal preoccupation) OR inability to function in almost all areas (e.g., stays in bed all day; no job, home or friends).


Suicide Assessment: A. Current ideation Denies.

1. Wish to Live Moderate to strong.

2. Wish to Die None.

B. Reasons for Living/Dying For living outweigh for dying.

C. Desire to Make Active Suicide Attempt None.

D. Passive Suicidal Attempt Would take precautions to save life. Total Score: 0. Clinician Rating For Suicide: D. Clinician’s Rating of the level of concern about potential suicidal behavior: Lowest concern (no prior or current concern about suicidal behavior).

E. Safety Plan: Pt agrees to inform staff of SI.

Initial Assessment: Pt is a 32 yo male with a hx of paranoid schizophrenia with decompensation in the context of lapse of medication compliance. Pt would benefit from restart of Olanzapine 20mg daily for psychotic symptoms. Will draw fasting lipids and fasting glucose tomorrow, given pt is on atypical antipsychotic. Pt will also have lab for PTH and Phos level, as hyperparathyroidism can present with psychosis given pt elevated Ca++. Pt to continue on vegetarian diet per request, but nutrition will be consulted for rec on nutritional supplements, as patient's diet does not appear to be sufficient to maintain adequate nutrition. We will also speak with mother for collateral info. Pt should benefit from re-establishment of psychiatric care since Telemedicine has been closed, and we will discuss this with social work. Pt may also benefit from long acting injectable neuroleptic, such as Risperdal Consta, given hx of med noncompliance. Medicine will be consulted for hyperbilirubinemia, as well as hypercalcemia. Bone density testing may be helpful in the future to evaluate pt for osteoporosis given elevated serum calcium. Initial Treatment Plan:

Initial Treatment Plan: continue same treatment plan and medications continue

inpatient hospitalization and care encourage groups

and working on workbook and safety plan social

worker and case manager assistance with aftercare

plans continue with 24 hour intensive support and

supervision for SI/HI/psychosis follow-up labs

obtain collateral information from family members,

outpatient health care providers and old medical

records after obtaining patient consent

Patient: agrees to tell staff if has intent to hurt self or others while in the hospital understands no smoking policy

Treatment plan: 1. Continue pt on Olanzapine 20mg Daily

2. Consult medicine for Gilbert's and hyperCa++ 3. Consult nutrition for nutritional concerns. 4. Consider starting long acting injectable neuroleptic for med adherence 5. Continue to monitor pt for SI/AVH 6. Encourage participation in groups and activities 7. Obtain further collateral info from mother 8. Order PTH level as hyperparathyroidism may be cause of hypercalcemia


PEDIATRICS: How to Shine Nursery

o Know your newborn VS: HR 120-160, RR 40-60, BP 65/50 o Be aggressive to get deliveries! Residents will take note of your interest, your evals will be better!

o APGAR score! You will be asked to calculate this in the delivery room/OR! Score at 1 min=represents conditions DURING labor/delivery; indicates need for resuscitation

Score at 5 min=represents effectiveness of resuscitation efforts; prognostic of survival A LOW APGAR score is NOT predictive of CP

o TTN more common in C/S babies (benign condition seen in term infants)

o RDS more common in premies (look at lethicin:sphingomyelin ratio!)

o HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA!!! o <24 hours of life=pathologic! Requires evaluation!

o Indirect=unconjugated

• Transient hyperbili peaks at 2-3 days of life, ~60% of newborns, ~80% of preemies

Direct=conjugated: Requires evaluation!

o duch*enne-Erb: C5-C6 (lose axillary n., musculocutaneous n.)

o Klumpke: C7-T1 (lose ulnar n., also often assoc w/ Horner’s) o Sepsis??? Early (GBS, E. coli, Listeria) vs Late (Coag neg staph, E. coli, GBS)

Either way: IVF, Cx, Abx (Amp, Gent, Cefotaxime) o Know the Ballard score o Know all the benefits of breastfeeding! Breast is best!! Any time you can incorporate that into your

plan/management you will get brownie points ☺ o The babies aren’t always in the nursery, don’t be afraid to go to the mom’s room and examine the baby

in there…make sure you know how to introduce yourself to the mom in Spanish! NICU

o Fill out the NICU template!!! o Calculate the kcals/kg/day based on their formula o Know neonatal jaundice, apnea of prematurity, gastroschisis vs. omphalocele, Necrotizing enterocolitis,

Intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal opiate syndrome, the benefits and detriments of giving them O2 o You often won’t get to physically examine the baby due to limited “touch time” but you can report on

their activity level, how their breathing looks (are they using accessory muscles?), their skin color,

any noticeable rashes o Know if the bili light is on or not

o Talk to the nurses! Inpatient wards

o Talk to the parents and to the kid to get the history o Know their primary care physician- be a rock star and get their phone and fax numbers!

o Know the levels of management of asthma o You can do a full physical exam on the child while they are sleeping!! Most of them are really heavy

sleepers, just pull back the blankets and let them keep laying there. There is no need to wake up a sick

4 year old at 5 am. o Know the immunizations they have had and what they are missing

o Ask about sick contacts- school, daycare, siblings at school o Ask if this has happened before, you may find a pattern of illness suggestive of some underlying process o Pay attention to fevers and whether or not they were on Tylenol; need to be afebrile for 24 hours before

going home

Good books for studying: Pretest, Case Files


Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.







0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Emma Holliday Ramahi Video

Uworld Pediatrics Section


BRS Pediatrics

Case Files






FAMILY: How to Shine Ask all of your patients a personal question: How are their kids? How is work going? Are they following the

Spurs in the playoffs?…If time allows, feel free to present this information in the subjective part of your

presentation, it shows that you care about more than just the medical part of their care. If clinic is rushed that day,

only present the most pertinent findings.

Ask about compliance with medications and details about how they take them: Did they actually fill the

prescription from last time? Any side effects? Do they take them as prescribed or only when they

remember/feel symptoms/can afford it? When managing diabetes you need to know: if they check their sugars, what time of day (am, pre-meal, post-meal

etc.),when their sugars are high or low, what their medications are, what their insulin regimen is, what their diet is

like…if they say they eat salad, ask what they put on it! A bowl of ranch and cheese is NOT following diet recs.

Again, ask everyone about diet and exercise! Know the guidelines for diagnosis and management of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia backwards and

forwards!!! Most of these can be found on Up To Date or the AAFP website. Good books for studying:

o Case Files (NOTE: There are two editions, questions will be pulled from BOTH editions for your weekly

quizzes, these questions will be EXACTLY the same as those in this book. MEMORIZE THEM!)

o AAFP questions online (good for the shelf, especially b/c UWorld doesn’t have a family section)

Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.






0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0

Uworld Medicine Section


Case Files

AAFP questions


Family Medicine


S yo M/F here today for

nausea chills dysuria muscle weakness syncope vomiting chest pain frequency myalgia vision changes diarrhea palpitations urgency numbness bleeding/clotting constipation SOB swelling tingling SIGECAPS fever cough claudication headache weight loss PMH/PSH: MEDS: FH:

stroke MI bleeding/clotting d/o CA HTN DM dyslipidemia

SH: Tobacco: EtOH: Drugs:

Last visits: Dentist: Ophtho: Podiatry:



GEN: alert, NAD HEENT: no JVD, PERRLA, EOMI, tympanic membranes visualized, moist mucous membranes, good dentition

CV: RRR, no m/r/g, no carotid bruits RESP: CTAB, no wheezing/rhonchi/crackles ABD: soft, NT/ND, + BS, no palpable masses, no organomegaly, no abdominal bruits

UE: WWP, palpable radial pulse, good capillary refill, m. strength 5/5 LE: WWP, m. strength 5/5, 2+ DTRs, sensation intact

*atrophic skin changes (thickened nail, hair loss), cyanosis, edema, varicosities, tissue loss, ulcerations



Lipid panel:




Be proactive and ask to do procedures. The EM attending’s and residents are pretty chill and you’ll be amazed at what

they’ll let you do if you show a little interest

o IV’s, sutures, I&D’s, paracentesis, central lines, etc. DON’T BE A WALLFLOWER!

There are templates provided for you by the attending’s in the ED Learn to do a focused H&P—it’s the ER… they want to figure out the 1 (maybe 2) major thing that brought the

patient in, fix it/stabilize them, and get them home/transferred to the floor so that the next patient in the waiting room

can be seen

o If the patient comes in with a laceration to his finger, don’t spend a lot of time figuring out if the

patient is actually compliant with their asthma medications or if they’re lying to you about their

social history Resources for test:

o EM First Aid o Pretest o Trauma section in NMS o Know toxic ingestions (commonly asked on test)

Class of 2016 poll ranking study resources. N = 88. Scale 1-10, 10 is most useful.







0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0


First Aid for the Emergency Medicine…

Rosh Review Question Bank

Case Files

Trauma section of NMS surgery casebook

Blue Prints

Emergency Medicine


Rotating at the RAHC in the RGV? (Beginning in July 2016, will only be people in the RAHC track) Of course, everything that you’ve learned the past 2 years and in your previous rotations will help you with rotating at the RAHC. Although the RAHC is still a campus of UTHSCSA, there are some key differences. Below are a couple of ideas to keep in mind for each rotation: Medicine:

Rotate with a resident, but there are not any notes to write. Presentations are your chance to show what you


Morning report is your time to shine with the residency director. He will ask the med students questions and take time to teach you. Pay attention during these rounds. “Vitals are always vital”


Unless you rotate with Dr. Hilmy and sometimes with Dr. Lopez, it is you and the attending. You have to ask

questions and ask to be taught. The attendings are fantastic teachers but will let you rotate without pimping or

learning if you don’t get engaged.

If you work hard, you will have plenty of opportunity to 1st

-assist and have hands on experiences.

Get to know the ancillary staff, pull your gloves and gown, and eventually they’ll have it ready for you. They are also excellent teachers.


No night call Deliveries and opportunities to 1

st assist if you ask and work hard


Inpatient is with a Family Medicine Resident. This is an opportunity to manage several patients. There are primarily 2 attendings that are excellent with teaching students and giving students responsibilities.

You can write notes and orders. Take advantage of an opportunity to act like a sub-I Rules at the RAHC:

It’s you and the attending. The role you play as a student is less defined than at an academic center. More often

than not, if you ask to do something, you will have the opportunity to do it. You have to take ownership of your

education. Housing: Really, really, don’t have pets.

If you rotate on Peds or Family, take advantage of the CSL opportunity. Email Angie Bocanegra, Salina

Coleman, or Dr. Valdez. Be prepared to drive to different cities (and to beach for some fun!)


Information on Schedules

When to show up on the first day?

Before starting each new rotation you will have an orientation generally from 8am to noon. You will then break for

lunch, and then report to your location by 1pm. At this point you will have a brief orientation to the rotation by the

residents. They should tell you at what time you are expected to show up, or present your patients by. If they don’t, you

need to ask. The time at which you will show up is resident and attending dependent. Thus, when a new attending

comes on, ask the resident again, incase adjustments need to be made.

General advice when between blocks within a rotation

On the day before you start the next block, within a rotation, (for example going from a 4 week block of IM at University

Hospital, to a 4 week block of IM at the VA) show up and ask the residents what time you should be ready to present

your patients by. In addition, use that time to pickup the patients you will see in the morning, so that you can hit the

ground running the first day. You will look good on rounds when as a fresh face; you are already ready to present a few

patients, without having to burn a day in getting oriented. Residents are expected to operate like this, thus you should

do it as well, it will make that first day so much easier and much more rewarding, as you will be instrumental to helping

the team.





Feel free to e-mail with questions




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